e-ISSN 1694-2078
p-ISSN 1694-2086

Arch Med Biomed Res. 2017;3:104-116. doi:10.4314/ambr.v3i2.6

Pasipanodya Ian Machingura1, Boniface Macheka2, Mathias Mukona3, Kudzanai Mateveke4, Parmenas Nelson Okwanga5, Exnevia Gomo1

Author Affiliations

1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe
2Parirenyatwa Hospital, Causeway, Harare, Zimbabwe
3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe
4Research Support Centre, University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe
5West End Clinic, 13 Baines Avenue, Harare, Zimbabwe

correspondence to
Pasipanodya Ian Machingura; imachingura@yahoo.co.uk

Received: July 12, 2016
Revised: November 13, 2016
Accepted: January 07, 2017


Diabetic retinopathy is the fifth leading cause of blindness worldwide accounting for nearly 5% of all blindness. However, most of the prevalence and incidence data is from developed countries, with very limited information from sub-Saharan Africa. The study sought to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, retinopathy in diabetic patients. Diabetes mellitus patients attending the outpatients’ clinic at Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals between October 2013 and July 2014 were recruited into this analytical cross-sectional study. Demographic information was collected. A nurse carried out anthropometric measurements. An ophthalmologist using slit lamp indirect ophthalmoscopy with a 20-diopter and a 90-diopter lens diagnosed retinopathy. Blood samples were collected and analysed for triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin and serum creatinine. A total of 340 patients were enrolled into the study, of whom 73.2% were female. Mean (SD) age was 57.5 (14.9) years and there was no difference in age between females [57.6 (14.1) years] and males [57.2 (16.8) years]. The overall prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 28.4%. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis retinopathy was associated with longer duration of diabetes mellitus (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.09, p value < 0.001) and lower serum creatinine (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.97-1.00, p value 0.025). The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 28.4%. Longer duration of diabetes mellitus and lower serum creatinine, which is a marker of renal damage, were independent risk factors of diabetic retinopathy.

KEY WORDS: Diabetes mellitus; Diabetic retinopathy; Complications; Blindness; Prevalence; Risk factor


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