e-ISSN 1694-2078
p-ISSN 1694-2086

Arch Med Biomed Res. 2017;3:67-76. doi:10.4314/ambr.v3i2.3

Adetoyeje Y Oyeyemi1, Aliyu Lawan1, Godson J Akpeli2, Adewale L Oyeyemi1,3

Author Affiliations

1Department of Medical Rehabilitation (Physiotherapy), College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
2Department of Physiotherapy, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria
3Physical Activity, Sport and Recreation Research Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, North-West University, South Africa

correspondence to
Aliyu Lawan; aliyulawanladan@yahoo.com

Received: March 22, 2016
Revised: July 07, 2016
Accepted: August 11, 2016


Humans learned to walk forward in the course of evolution, while sideways and backward walking are considered to be novel tasks. This study compared the cardiovascular parameters during forward, backward and sideways walking of students in a Nigerian University. Fifty apparently healthy young adult students (25.6±2.0 years) were purposively recruited to participate in the study. Participants had their anthropometric characteristics (weight and height) and cardiovascular parameters (heart rate [HR], systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], mean arterial pressure [MAP], pulse pressure (PP) and rate pressure product (RPP), and rate of perceived exertion [RPE]) determined at baseline. Participants’ HR, SBP, DBP, MAP and RPE responses after a 100 meter walk at the subject’s self-selected maximum speed during the different modes of walking were compared using multiple analysis of variance. Significantly higher DBP, MAP (P<0.05) and RPE (P<0.01) for sideways walking compared to backward walking, higher (P<0.01) HR, SBP and RPE for both sideways walking and backward walking compared to forward walking, and higher (P<0.01) HR, SBP, DBP, MAP and RPE for sideways walking compared to forward walking were found. We also found higher (P<0.01) HR, SBP and RPE for backward walking compared to the corresponding values during forward walking. Overall, findings of heightened cardiovascular responses suggest higher energy expenditure in sideways walking compared to forward and backward walking. We hypothesize that the differential plane of motion and the more prevalent static muscle work in sideways walking may be responsible for the apparently more strenuous nature of sideways walking compared to the other modes.

KEY WORDS: Cardiovascular; Energy expenditure; Ambulation; Walking; Motor pattern


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