e-ISSN 1694-2078
p-ISSN 1694-2086

Arch Med Biomed Res. 2016;3:9-16. doi:10.4314/ambr.v3i1.2

Arun Kumar Agnihotri1, Okezie I Aruoma2

Author Affiliations

1Department of Forensic Medicine, SSR Medical College, Belle Rive, Mauritius
2School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Long Beach, Long Beach, USA

correspondence to
Arun K Agnihotri: agnihotri_arun@hotmail.com
Okezie I Aruoma: okezie.aruoma@uolb.org

Received: January 05, 2016
Accepted: March 05, 2016


The risk factors of suicide which occur in people of all genders, ages and ethnicities, although complex to fully understand, share certain characteristics that include depression (other mental disorders, psychosis or substance abuse disorder), a prior suicide attempt, family history of a mental disorder or substance abuse, family history of suicide, family violence (including physical or sexual abuse), having guns or other firearms in the home, incarceration and exposure to others' suicidal behavior (such as that of family members, peers, or media figures). Research suggests that people who attempt suicide differ from others in many aspects of how they think, react to events, and make decisions. This paper reviews the global trends on suicide and the prevention of suicide according to program evaluation, risk and protective factors, type of intervention, level of intervention and the interface between clinical and public health levels. The major interventions for the prevention of suicide are reasonable care and treatment of mental and addictive disorders, restricted access to lethal means of suicide such as firearms, pesticides, etc., improvement of media portrayal of suicide, school-based programs, availability of hotlines and crisis centers, and training of primary health care personnel.

KEY WORDS: Suicide; Risk factors; Global trends; Prevention


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This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial.